In Memoriam: Dr. C.C. Lindsey

Memorial comments on Dr. C.C. Lindsey by his former students at University of Manitoba and a couple of other places.

Dr. Lindsey obtained his B.Sc. at University of Toronto in 1948 after which he moved to UBC to do his M.A. with Dr. Peter Larkin. He went to Professor Sir James Gray’s lab at Cambridge University in the UK to complete his Ph.D. (see clips below).

Environmental determination of the number of teleost fin rays, C. C. Lindsey (Casimir Charles), 1923-, author.; University of Cambridge. Department of Zoology, degree granting institution. 1952.

His Ph.D. thesis supervisor was Professor Sir James Gray: noted for his studies and books on fish locomotion. In the introduction to his thesis, C.C. Lindsey wrote ‘It is a pleasure also to acknowledge the assistance in various ways of Mr K. Klose, Dr H. Lissmann and Dr R.H.J. Brown’.

(Thanks to Red Clarke and Ms. Louise Clarke, Superintendent, ​​Manuscripts Reading Room, Cambridge University Library, West Road, Cambridge, CB3 9DR).

Eulogies to Casimir C. Lindsey by former graduate students

Ric Moodie

Here are two of many memories I have of Cas.

After I completed my BSc and Cas agreed to supervise my MSc, I spent part of the summer travelling through BC, Washington, Idaho, Oregon, and Nevada as Cas’s field hand. We put on many miles. In the early days of getting to know each other I came to sense that Cas did not trust my driving ability. He seemed uneasy about letting me spell him off and was not relaxed when I was at the wheel. One day on a trip somewhere in the Okanagan accompanied by either Robin Liley or Don McPhail, I was driving and Cas had finally managed to fall asleep in the front passenger seat. Suddenly, a good sized bird, a grouse or pheasant, burst up from the side of the road, flew in front of the car and crashed into the windshield. It sounded like an explosion and was momentarily terrifying although I at least knew what was happening. Cas did not know what was happening and woke up, shouting “what happened?” thinking no doubt that his fears about having Moodie at the wheel were being realized and that I was in the process of killing us all. As the bird had bounced off the windshield he had to take my word for what had happened. Just for the record, it was not me that ran the car out of gas on some god-forsaken back road in the USA.

A short time after I completed my MSc. with Cas, another of his students, Don Hagen, had completed his PhD on the Threespine Stickleback. One day Don was prowling through the UBC fish museum and came across a jar of huge, black threespine sticklebacks from a lake on Haida Gwaii. This happened around the time Don McPhail, in Seattle and another of Cas’s former students, was putting the Threespine Stickleback on the evolutionary biology map. Don and I took the jar to Cas. Cas became very excited and exclaimed “well, you better go up there and see what’s going on!” Within a few days we were flying to Sandspit with a Zodiac and everything we needed to stay a week or so. Cas said he would supervise my PhD on the Haida Gwaii sticklebacks but it was not a good idea to get all my degrees from the same place. So I went to Ralph Nursall in Alberta. I recount the story for what it says about Cas’s scientific curiosity and generosity to his students. At the time Cas funded our expedition to Haida Gwaii Don and I had entirely completed our theses and Cas owed us nothing. However he sent us and never even told us to work within a budget.

Patricia Moodie

“Never work for free.” Words of advice I received from Cas in 1971 when I had just arrived in Manitoba with my husband, Ric Moodie.  Cas was telling me about a research project he was planning that would require Fortran programming and he was wondering if I would be interested in taking this on as a contract. At the time he said he was not sure of funding for this project so I said it sounded quite interesting and I would be happy to work for free. Cas’s dedication to science never got in the way of his concern for nascent researchers and he quite emphatically advised me “Never work for free. I will find funds for you somewhere.” Thank you, Cas!

Ric and I are also grateful to Cas and Shelagh for introducing us to the pleasures of living beside the Red River.  In 1972 Cas and Shelagh asked us if we wanted to rent their home in St Norbert for the same amount we were then paying for an apartment in Richmond Village. That year in their lovely house led us to buying river property which has been good for our souls ever since.

Memories of CC Lindsey; Bill Franzin UofM MSc 1970, PhD 1974

I first met Dr. Lindsey in the Institute of Fisheries at UBC. I had returned to BC from Inuvik NT. I was born in Powell River and lived in Lund BC until I was 11 when my father, a boat builder, took a job with DIAND in Tuktoyaktuk NT. I lived in Tuk until moving to boarding school in Inuvik for Grades 10-12, graduating in 1963. I arrived at UBC that fall to a major culture shock.

CCL taught a major 4th year course called Biology of Fishes which I managed to get into in 3rd year. It was difficult; Lindsey’s lab exam included learning the fishes of the Vancouver Public Aquarium. He arranged to have the fish part of the aquarium closed to the public for an afternoon and we were to identify all levels of taxonomy in specific tanks; sometimes genera, sometimes orders and frequently families of fishes were to be identified. All the fish IDs were covered over. Not just simple identification but questions like how many families, orders or genera were in a particular tank.

Because I came from so far away and lived in the UBC plebian residences (YTC and Acadia camps) CC knew I wouldn’t be going home for Christmas. He arranged a job for me staining and clearing specimens of Rivulus sp. in the IOF fish lab. I met many of CCs graduate students during the time in the lab. It struck me that he was exceptionally well respected and well liked by faculty, students, and support staff alike. I resolved to emulate him as best I could. At the end of the school year in 1966 CC announced that he was moving to Winnipeg to help start an aquatic biology program at UofM. Before he left, he invited me to come and do graduate work with him when I finished at UBC. In early May of 1967, I got into an old Econoline van I bought from my father and drove to Manitoba.

Ric’s account of flying off to Haida Gwaii to look for sticklebacks resonated with me. When I got to Winnipeg Lindsey had leased a monster GMC 1 ton panel truck for doing field work. He had a 12ft Springbok boat on the roof rack and a 9.9hp outboard in the back. There was only a single bench seat in the truck so it could only hold three passengers. As Red alluded to, we did a maiden run to West Hawk Lake on the May long weekend to see what lived in the bottom waters of the crater lake at -365 feet. With some difficulty, we managed to lay a hundred feet or so of fine mesh netting somewhat on the bottom. We had our campsite dinner and went to bed in a couple of tourist tents. I think in all there were about 4-5 of us there, CCL, maybe Alex Tretiak , Pat Rakowski or others. When we got up in the morning it was below freezing, snowing lightly and blowing about 30mph. Nobody was very interested to go boating in those conditions, but it had to be done. CCL and I went out and pulled the nets, bounding up and down in the waves as we did so. He was delighted to find a couple of live sculpins in the net and almost immediately declared that they were rare Deepwater Sculpins, a new species record for Manitoba. Once back in Winnipeg he made great fanfare over this discovery, contacting, and showing them to the media on TV and in the Free Press. With that, CC directed Red and me to travel the province in the big yellow GMC and find out what fish were where, particularly Lake Whitefish and Ciscoes..

Lindsey also had a 10 foot Zodiac inflatable boat that he christened “Flatulas” that he and several of his students took to Churchill to search for 3-spined and nine-spined sticklebacks in the tundra ponds just off of Hudson Bay. But that is another story.

I remember three admonitions that CCL gave me; never split infinitives, make correct use of the word “likely” and in response to one of my many ideas; “I’ll believe you, but thousands wouldn’t”. Once at a party at Dr. Trevor Dandy’s house one of the grad students was loudly getting carried away and annoying CC. He said to the student (here not mentioning any name); “student, you have a thin veneer of civilisation, and it is soluble in alcohol”; everyone roared with laughter. That was CC’s style.


Dr. Lindsey was a major influence in my life.  I came to Canada in 1967 to do an M.Sc. under him at the University of Manitoba, and then he encouraged me to do my Ph.D. with him. 

At the University of Manitoba, Dr. Lindsey continued his work on the distribution and systematics of Arctic fishes especially of Coregonus species.  I worked with ciscoes rather than whitefish.  My M.Sc. started by looking at food and other ecological differences among three forms of ciscoes in Lake Athapapuskow, Manitoba, but it soon focused on their taxonomy.  This led my Ph.D. on the systematics of ciscoes in Canada outside of the Great Lakes.  Just traditional taxonomy – no electrophoresis or genetics for me!

As well as research and biological sciences, Dr. Lindsey introduced me to his interest in glacial history and the distribution of glacial relicts, such as Mysis relicta and deepwater sculpin.   One memorable sampling trip was to West Hawk Lake, Manitoba, where Bill Franzin and I gillnetted a few deepwater sculpin at 115 m for him.

In 1970 I was able to work with Dr. Lindsey in the field in The Yukon.  I enjoyed his expertise and company.  We sampled many lakes including Chadburn Lake where we looked for pygmy whitefish, another glacial relict.  In Dawson City we both enjoyed Diamond Tooth Gertie’s Cabaret and sampled the sourtoe cocktail.  He also entertained me with his harmonica, introducing me to some classic North American folk songs.

Dr. Lindsey had an extensive network of colleagues including many of Canada’s and the world’s renown ichthyologists such as Ed Crossman, Don McAllister, Don McPhail, Joe Nelson and Bev Scott in Canada, Reeve Bailey, the famous Hubbs and Lagler, J. L. B. Smith of coelacanth fame, and Gunnar Svardson (whose coregonid papers were a required part of my indoctrination).  He organized the first Coregonid Symposium where we got to meet many of the leading coregonid researchers from Asia, Europe and North America.  His network enabled his graduate students to meet with and sometimes work with other distinguished ichthyologists.

He also was a good team builder.  He developed an influential team of graduate students that included Max Blouw, Drew Bodaly, Chris Foote, Bill Franzin, Erich Kliewer, Al Kristofferson, John Loch, Tetsuya Narita and Alex Tretiak.  He was, of course, very receptive to chocolate (cake), a major component of team building!

Dr. Lindsey made me feel welcome and comfortable.  I enjoyed his enthusiasm, wit, lectures (especially on dragons), out-of-left-field questions during my oral exams, and the parties he hosted with Shelagh.  He was there to answer questions and provide advice when asked but was not intrusive.  He stimulated my lasting interest in adaptation, evolution, systematics, and glacial history.  His influence carried through to my subsequent life and career.

Words don’t convey my appreciation of Dr. Lindsey.  He has had a great influence on me.  Many, many thanks to you, Dr. Lindsey.

Red Clarke.

Memories of C.C. Lindsey; Erich Kliewer; MSc UofM 1969

Aside from his encyclopedic knowledge of all things fish, I really appreciated Dr. Lindsey’s sense of humour.

When one was submitting a thesis for a degree in Manitoba it had to include a statement something like “Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science”.  As part of his Ichthyology course we had to submit a final paper, and on it I wrote “Submitted in partial fulfilment for the requirements of an A+ in Ichthyology”. When I got the paper back Dr. Lindsey had written “You are right, this paper partially fulfills the requirement of an A+” and he had given me an A.

I was once on a field trip with Dr. Lindsey in Churchill. We were in a pub in the evening and an Aboriginal man was saying how he had caught something like five beluga whales that day. Dr. Lindsey than told the man that that was nothing and pointing to me said he had caught ten. Of course this left me trying to explain to the upset man that it was all a joke. It ended with us all sharing a laugh and a drink.

Dr. Lindsey could also take a joke. He was a recognized expert on whitefish. I made a book and on the cover it had All I Know About Whitefish by C.C. Lindsey. The book had nothing but blank pages. I somehow managed to get an empty envelope from a package that had been sent from the United States with no return address, so I put the book in that, sealed it and put it in his mailbox. I assume he believed it cam from someone in the US as I never heard a word about it from him, and as far as I know, neither did anyone else in the Department. A few months later I had moved to Edmonton to start a PhD at the University of Alberta and Dr. Lindsey was there to give a seminar. During the question period I asked him when we might expect Volume 2 of his well received book All I know About Whitefish. Of course no one in the audience knew about the book. At first Dr. Lindsey looked at me quizzingly and then broke out in a laugh when he realized it was me that had played a joke on him.

On a serious side, I will always be grateful to Dr. Lindsey for taking me, a mediocre student, on as a graduate student. Not only did I learn a lot from him about fish, but also through his guidance I learned some of the basics of conducting research which laid the groundwork for my lifelong involvement in various research studies. It was truly a pleasure and an honour to have worked with him.

John Loch

My undergrad was spent at U of Toronto at its St. George Campus where I interacted with a number of fisheries scientists who provided me a base for a career in fisheries science.  However, I think Bev Scott & Ed Crossman were most instrumental in steering me towards working with Dr. Lindsey for my Masters.

In terms of anecdotes at U of Manitoba, I remember Red Clarke skating the U Man Zoology truck on the TCH into a ditch and rolling us right over onto the roof and then back onto its wheels during an interesting but futile sampling trip to Clear Lake.  As I recall, Dr. Lindsey took it in stride, flattened boat (tied to the roof of the truck) and all.

Speaking of futile sampling trips, I’ll always thank Dr. Lindsey for allowing me to head back to Algonquin Park to search for the “pygmy / dwarf whitefish” that Bill Kennedy had caught in Lake Opeongo many years before.  While there was a legitimate purpose for this trip, I must confess that spending time at the Park with my wife-to-be was important for Martha and me and I don’t think that was missed by Dr. Lindsey!

I also remember the telephone exchanges we had between Fiji and Winnipeg when Dr. Lindsey was helping set up the University of the South Pacific and we were discussing the possibility of my doing a PhD with him there in Fiji.  In the end he wisely felt it would be advisable that I accept a job offer from DFO, given the understandable priority he expected to be accorded to residents of the South Pacific for entry to their grad school.

However, the memories I have of Dr. Lindsey mostly revolve around our various grad student: supervisor chats about the status of my project and his penetrating but mirthful eyes as he checked how things were going and providing suggestions. 

Indeed, we all remember those eyes and how much laughter lay just behind them.



I was a graduate student with Dr. Lindsey at the University of Manitoba from 1973 to 1977, when I completed my Doctorate in Zoology.  I worked on sympatric populations of lake whitefish in Yukon lakes.

My dominant memories of Professor Lindsey are about his enthusiasm for his research and the research of his graduate students.  His enthusiasm was very contagious and he loved to talk about research findings to staff, students, and visitors in the Department, really anyone who would listen.  His research presentations were very animated.  Lindsey conducted research and published on freshwater fish:  zoogeography, post-glacial history, meristics, speciation and ecology.

He was definitely not a mother hen of a supervisor.  Mostly, you had to sink or swim in your research.  He was always there to talk to and to provide ideas if your needed advice, but he didn’t watch over your shoulder.

Dr. Lindsey had a wonderful sense of humor.  He loved jokes and practical jokes and was usually the architect of skits and films shown at Department functions.  He could be dismissive of people in authority, joking about their less favourable characteristics.

Cas Lindsey was an accomplished artist.  At conferences, he drew caricatures of presenters so he could remember them in the future.  On retirement, he became a full-time artist, working in both water colours and oils.  He travelled to various places in northern Canada, painting landscapes that usually contrasted human structures or left-overs like rusting oil drums, with the surrounding nature.

Drew Bodaly

From Max Blouw:

who was (dis)jointly supervised for his MSc in Zoology by Cas Lindsey (U. Manitoba), Jim Clayton (Freshwater Institute), and Dave Scott (Freshwater Institute).  I am grateful for this opportunity to contribute to celebrating Cas and apologize for coming in late (and my kids would add, a few pounds short).

One of my early and vivid recollections of Cas was a comment he wrote in a paper I had turned in to meet an assignment in his Ichthyology Course.  I had misspelled the subgenus Crisitvomer as “Christivomer”.  In his inimical puckish style he jotted in the margin red pencil “It is a crested vomer, not a Christly vomer”.  I smile at the memory each time I see a lake trout, which is not frequently enough these days.

Another memory concerns Cas’s early adoption of recycling.  Washrooms in the Zoology building were being refurbished and a number of us agreed it would be a good idea to convert Cas’s office into a men’s room – we were clearly late to grow beyond the stage of bathroom humor.  Cas’s office chair was removed and hidden away and a majestic toilet was installed at the place of honor in front of his desk.  Bathroom accoutrements like TP, paper towels, hand soap etc… were placed strategically. 

I wasn’t there to see Cas’s reaction, but next time I saw the toilet he had recycled it very cleverly and to a much higher purpose.  It had been relocated to the Zoology coffee room for the occasion of an aural examination of Ken Stewart, who was boning up for his Canadian citizenship exam.  Ken was strapped to the toilet with an automotive seat belt as I recall, looking discomfited and (as always) a bit disheveled.  Cas, Marty Samoiloff, Fred Ward and others were grilling him with truly impossible bits of Canadian trivia.  Cas had cleverly organized placement of a speaker in the toilet tank and, with every wrong answer (of which there were many), there was a thunderous, echoing sound of flushing – to the great applause of those assembled.  Ken was unfazed by the experience and attained his citizenship.

Yet another coffee room story that comes to mind relates to Cas’s well-known fondness for sweets and gentle disregard if they were the personal property of others.  A graduate student (who shall remain nameless) came up with the inspired notion of coating moose turds in milk chocolate, thus bearing an uncanny resemblance to a chocolate covered confection “Glosette Peanuts” – which gave a nice crunch when bitten.  The bowl of “Glosette Moose Turds” was placed strategically next to Cas’s favorite chair.  As predicted, Cas popped one into his mouth very quickly after seeing the unguarded delectables.  As I recall the incident, a look of puzzlement quickly developed in absence of the expected crunch, with those observing quickly advising, amid much laughter, that Cas spit and rinse repeatedly to avoid parasitic or other consequences.  I don’t know if Cas ever ferreted out the perpetrator, but I am sure he will have exacted a humorous, sophisticated and satisfying revenge.

And finally, speaking of revenge and humor, at one point I needed a letter of reference from Cas and we got talking about how difficult it is to write a truly good letter of reference for someone.  He then told me that he found it very easy to write when he deemed someone unworthy of his support. He described a gem that he apparently wrote at one point that was short, pithy, and in one line.  “Dear XXX, I have no concrete evidence that this man is a liar.  Sincerely, CCL”.   He certainly had a wonderful ability to simplify while leaving no doubt as to his meaning, with humor.

 I benefitted greatly from Cas’s gifted mentorship, teaching, enormous good humor, and irrepressible joie de vivre.  His generosity of spirit, and his vivid passion for his work and those around him made an enduring impression on me.  He was a terrific role model, and a gift to us all.

Dr.  C.C. Lindsey general comments; Chris Foote

Dr. Lindsey was a person of great intelligence, perception, integrity, wit and passion.  He combined these traits seamlessly to become an excellent scientist, raconteur, supervisor and teacher.  There was a time in Canada where the careers of a good many of the country’s leading fisheries scientists traced directly back to Dr. Lindsey’s door.   His ichthyology classes and labs were legendary, combining broad scientific concepts into specific topics on fish biology for two lectures a week, followed each week by a distinct lecture on fish taxonomy and systematics replete with pictures from his world-wide travels.  Joe Nelson specifically pointed to these lectures in his acknowledgements in his wonderful editions of Fishes of the World.

Scientifically Dr. Lindsey was a humble gentleman who was ahead of his time in numerous fields.  He was an expert on form and function and his synthesis of fish locomotion in the Fish Physiology series in the late 1970s is still oft quoted. One needs to only “Google” fish swimming images to see schematics of fish locomotion that trace directly back to that contribution.  He understood the combined rolls of genetics and environment is shaping fish stocks.  He looked at this on the local level with graduate students  on Loon Lake rainbow trout populations and on a continental level with his and colleagues’ work on fish distributions and stock structure.  This work was started in the 1950s, long before the Stock Concept became cemented in our understanding of fish population structure, and evolved to include detailed looks at variation in meristics and morphology within and across populations.  This work, of course, directly touched on ecological character displacement and speciation, again at the forefront of their time.  This works itself evolved into cutting edge genetic evaluation of fish stocks, notably lake whitefish, with the late, great, Jim Clayton of the Freshwater Institute,  and championed by their students, Bill Franzin and Drew Bodaly.  Through all of this, Dr. Lindsey moved ahead with an underlying passion to understand the role of environment, genetic variation and selection in meristic variation in fishes.  This was, and is, not a field for the fainthearted, yet with colleagues and students, notably Douglas Swain, he produced detailed models for the variation and a much deeper understanding of how such variation is both produced and maintained in populations.    The real story in all of this is how far ahead of his time Dr. Lindsey was, how meticulous he was in his research and how humble he was to hardly ever mention it.  From my view, he passed these traits to his students, and for all of that he remains one of the greatest people I have ever had the pleasure of knowing.   In short, I love and admire Dr. C.C. Lindsey and have from almost the day that I met him.

Note that I have missed much here, and in particular the credit due to his great students: J.D. McPhail, Don McAllister, Joe Nelson, Gordon Hartman… and the list goes on and on, including each of you. 

Specific personal story of Dr. C.C. Lindsey: Chris Foote

I came from an undergraduate “career” at the University of Toronto to do my Master’s with Dr. Lindsey on the recommendation of Dr. W.B. Scott.  Almost immediately on arriving at the University of Manitoba I was assigned to getting the equipment and camping gear ready for a 16 day survey of lake whitefish populations in the Nahanni region of the Northwest Territories.  This work was spurred on by discoveries made by Bill Franzin and Jim Clayton which indicated possible genetic differentiation in that and other areas and by recent geological evidence of a Nahanni refugium (Derek? Ford 1976) during the last ice age.  Here I was, flying into remote mountain lakes and living and sleeping in a small pup tent with Dr. Lindsey.  And Dr. Lindsey he was to me, and remained so throughout his whole life.  I tried to call him Cas a few times later in my career but it never felt right.  Dr. Lindsey, of course, never said a thing.  We flew into one lake, Dal Lake, north of the newly created Nahanni National Park.   There we encountered two twentysomething fellows originally from Toronto who had decided to live off the land in the mountains for a year (they too were ahead of their times).  To do so at the time, one first became a resident of the Northwest Territories (I think you had to live there for 6 months) and then you could get a license to use a personal gillnet (with a minimum stretch-mesh size of 4.5 inches, if I remember correctly).  We arrived in late August.  These two fellows were lucky to catch/tangle a sucker with that gillnet in that lake,  such was the limited size  of the fish there, and the distribution of the larger lake char.  Things were so tough that they had already shot and eaten all of the local whisky jacks (Canada jays), formerly known as the bushman’s friend (not dinner).  Well, there were no lake whitefish in Dal Lake,  so what were Dr. Lindsey and his student to do? They helped these two lost souls bring their fish smoker up to industrial snuff  and then showed them what two fisheries biologists could do with an 8 ft inflatable boat filled with experimental gill nets.  Yes, commercial fishing on a grand scale once existed, for 3 days, on Dal Lake.  To celebrate that these two erstwhile bushman might indeed survive on the last night Dr. Lindsey pulled out his medical supplies to help celebrate in style. Medical supplies in those days consisted almost totally of bottles of overproof rum, which Dr. Lindsey somehow knew to bring along for such occasions.  We had a great time in the small, dark, log cabin the pair had built, dug into the ground with the smallest of small window (or was it windows?).   Stories were told, great times and much merriment were had.   Throughout all of this time, I called Dr. Lindsey, “Dr. Lindsey’, while the two bushman of my same age, called him “Cas”.   Somewhere during the evening, they both took to calling him “Dr. Cas”.  Dr. Lindsey, of course, said nothing.

We left the next day.  On departure, Dr. Lindsey gave them a signed copy of McPhail and Lindsey as they asked after it (actually he gave them my copy, which I had bought and brought, but he dutifully signed and gave to them).   He then, somehow, forgot to pack two, or was it three, 300 ft experimental gillnets.

Dr. Lindsey was great at everything he did.

Al Kristofferson,

I was a grad student (MSc) of his from 1975-1978 and Jim Clayton was my co-supervisor. I couldn’t have a better mentor in Cas.  He was kind, understanding, patient and inspirational and I thoroughly enjoyed my studies with him. He also had a very interesting and unique sense of humour, which I always enjoyed as well!  We were very lucky to have been his students and I will never forget him.

My Cas Lindsey story – Burton Ayles

 I was not a student of Cas Lindsey so I do not have the personal memories that his former students do but like most fisheries scientists in Canada I have more than a few stories about Cas.  

 Rick mentioned that Cas had been able to get into China when it was still closed to many foreigners.  I remember I heard Cas give a talk about visiting Chinese fish markets to look for new species of fish.  That talk was probably at one of the UBC Zoology Department seminars called “Noon Hour Travels With a Biologist so it must have been about 1965 or 1966 before Cas moved to University of Manitoba.  

Ten years later in  1976 I was in China and I actually got to visit some fish markets but I doubt I lerned as much as Cas.  I was with a four person delegation – the first Canadian fisheries technical mission to China since Trudeau established relations with China following his October 1973 visit (He had also been there in 1949 and then again in 1960 but as a private citizen as I guess Cas was).   There had been some sort of higher level visit of fisheries officials in 1974 but we,  Ward Falkner, Keith Sandercock and me from DFO and Dan Dhavernas a second secretary from the Canadian Embassy, were supposed to be “technical experts” who were there to review the  range of  freshwater activities from science to management to and production from aquaculture to rivers and reservoirs from communes to industry and from Beijing to the Pearl River Delta.

 I am not sure how much we actually contributed to better Chinese Canada relationships or to the advancement of freshwater fisheries and aquaculture in Canada but it was a great experience.  An experience for us and for our Chinese hosts who were obviously out to put their best foot forward but had little familiarity with foreign experts.   I am certain that their biggest concern was to get use through the tour and meetings without losing one or more of us in some way that would negatively affect their own careers or lives.   We had been asking to meet some researchers or academics – we had enough of communes, fish plants, decorative gardens and primary schools – when finally on July 3 just a few days before we were to leave they took us to Sun Yet-Sen University in Guangzhou  (it is also called Zhongshan University) .  It was a big open American style campus established in about 1926.  They told us it had 11 departments including biology with 3000 students and 1000 faculty. We estimated that at one time there must have been many more students and faculty and today it is ten times that size. 

 The reason there were so few students and faculty is that this was at the tail end of the Cultural Revolution which had started in 1966 and was just ending with the death of Zhou Enlai in January of 1976 just before we came and the death of Mao Zedong in September shortly after we left.  This is relevant because during the Cultural Revolution academics and elites were heavily persecuted and often sent out to work in the fields and factories and faced hard physical jobs to exemplify that this was a “peasant Revolution” and there was no need for such people.  During our visit  the “Gang of Four” were still holding sway as one little school girl sang to us in praise of the Peoples Liberation Army.   (My  student, Li Sifa, who came from Shanghai and was the child of two American educated Chinese academics, when asked about that time would only say “Much suffer!  Much  suffer!)

 So we were pleased to finally get to a university and very much surprised when we were introduced to an elderly, and clearly venerated Professor Liao Shang Hwa who was a fish parasitologist,.  Everybody else we were ever introduced to was “Comrade” so we were impressed with his introduction as “Professor”.  Then we were impressed even more when he told us, through the interpreters but with some broken English that he had a “friend” from Canada who had visited him in about 1965 and asked if we knew Dr. Cas Lindsey.  We were excited to tell him that we knew Dr Lindsey very well and Keith was able to tell him that Cas had been his supervisor.  Liao was very pleased and urged Keith to pass on his best wishes to Lindsey which we said he would do. We had a nice chat about the fisheries technical training and research  at the University.  It was a good visit thanks to Lindsey’s preparatory work 10 years before and it seemed that our standing with our Chinese hosts went up when they understood we were familiar with such esteemed scientists.


List of Dr. Lindsey’s former students

UBC graduate students’ theses 1953 – 1966; 1979-89

A taxonomic study of cutthroat trout, Salmo Clarki Clarki Richardson, rainbow trout Salmo Gairdneri Richardson and reciprocal hybrids. Hartman, Gordon Frederick. MA. 1956

The systematics of the freshwater sculpins of British Columbia. McAllister, D.E. MA. 1957

Reproduction of three species of suckers (Catostomidae) in British Columbia. Geen, Glen Howard. MA. 1958

The influence of light intensities and durations during early development on meristic variation in some salmonids. Canagaratnam, Pascarapathy. PhD. 1959

A systematic study of the Dolly Varden, Salvelinus malma (Walbaum). McPhail, John Donald. MSc. 1959

Meristic variation in the medaka (Oryzias latipes) produced by temperature and by chemicals affecting metabolism. Ali, Mohammed Youssouf. PhD. 1962.

A review of the genus Caranx from the tropical east Pacific. Lane, E. David. MSc. 1962.

Early life history and possible interaction of five inshore species of fish in Nicola Lake, British Columbia. Miura, Taizo. PhD (Larkin and Lindsey). 1962.

Growth and morphometry of the pygmy whitefish (Prosopium coulteri) in British Columbia. McCart, Peter James. MSc. 1963.

A contribution to the ecology of the whitefishes Prosopium cylindraceum and Coregonus clupeaformis of Algonquin Park, Ontario. Sandercock, Frederick Keith. MSc. 1964.

The systematics of the prickly sculpin, Cottus asper : an investigation of genetic and non-genetic variation within a polytypic species. Krejsa, Richard Joseph. PhD. 1965.

Hybridization and isolating mechanisms in Catostomus commersonii and Catostomus macrocheilus. Nelson, Joseph Schieser. PhD. 1965.

Isolating mechanisms and speciation in Gasterosteus aculeatus L. Hagen, Don Warren. PhD. 1966

Some factors affecting the distribution and abundance of the chiselmouth (Acrocheilus alutaceus). Moodie, Gordon Eric Edmund. MSc. 1966.

A study of hybridization between two species of cyprinid fishes, Acrocheilus alutaceus and Ptychocheilus oregonensis. Stewart, Kenneth. PhD. 1966.

Adaptive significance of variation in vertebral number in fishes : evidence in Gasterosteus aculeatus and Mylocheilus cautines. Swain, Douglas Paul. PhD. 1986.

U of M graduate students’ theses: 1967 – 1979

Gillraker variation and diet in lake whitefish (Coregonus cluepeaformis) in northern Manitoba. Kliewer, E. V. M.Sc. 1969.

The taxonomy of three sympatric species of ciscoes in northern Manitoba. Clarke, R. McV. M.Sc. 1970.

Lactate dehydrogenase and hemoglobin variants in lake whitefish, Coregonus clupeaformis (Mitchill). Franzin, W.G. M.Sc. 1970.

Physiological, ecological and morphological differences between two forms of ninespine stickleback (Pungitius pungitius), in North America. Narita, T. Ph.D. 1970.

The application of certain techniques of fisheries statistics to an isolated population of brook sticklebacks, (Culea inconstans) at Delta Marsh, Manitoba. Acere, T.O. M.Sc. 1971.

Phenotypic variation in the lake whitefish as induced by introduction into a new environment. Loch, J.S. M.Sc. 1971.

The systematics of ciscoes (Coregonidae) in central Canada. Clarke,.R. McV. Ph.D. 1973.

Genetic studies of protein variants and their use in a zoogeographic study of lake whitefish, Coregonus clupeaformis (Mitchill) in Western Canada. Franzin, W.G. Ph.D. 1974.

Gill raker characteristics in transplanted and parent whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), and an examination of their histology and regeneration capabilities. Tretiak, A.S. M.Sc. 1975.

Effect of parental temperature experience and sustained offspring rearing temperature on some meristic series in zebra fish (Brachiodanio rerio). Dentry, W. M.Sc. 1976.

The effects of planktivorous fish predation, lake morphometry, and lake productivity on the limnetic zooplankton of Yukon lakes. Archibald, C.P. (with K. Patalas). M.Sc. 1977.

On the analysis of morphic variation; a critical examination of methodology, and application to a taxonomically difficult group. Blouw, D.M. M.Sc. 1977.

Evolutionary divergence between currently sympatric lake whitefish, Coregonus clupeaformis, in the Yukon Territory. Bodaly, R.A. Ph.D. 1977.

Evidence for the existence of subpopulations of Lake Whitefish, Coregonus clupeaformis (Mitchill) in Lake Winnipeg. Kristofferson, A.H. M.Sc. 1978.

A biochemical genetic study of zoogeography of lake whitefish, Coregonus clupeaformis, in western Canada in relation to their possible survival in a Nahanni glacial refugium. Foote, Christopher J. M.Sc. 1979.

Effects of parental and incubation environments on meristic variation in Rivulus marmoratus. Swain, D.P. M.Sc. 1979.

Ecology and morphology of sympatric and allopatric populations of mountain whitefish, Prosopium williamsoni, and round whitefish, P. cylindraceum in lakes in western Canada. Guinn, B.R. M.Sc. (CCL and KWS). 1982.