CARS Legends Nominees (in alphabetical order by last name)
Alexander Dimitrivitch Bajkov
Dr. Bajkov’s biography and research contributions can be found here: http://www.mhs.mb.ca/docs/people/bajkov_ad.shtml
John came from England to work at St. Andrews Biological Station in about 1966 or 1967, he worked on scallop for a while, got into other invertebrates, and was very productive for a number of years. He moved to FAO HQ in Rome in 1974 and worked there until 1999. He was extremely productive and influential on a wide range of subjects – stock assessment and management of fish and invertebrate stocks, the precautionary approach (he wrote a very influential FAO document on how this should be implemented for marine fisheries, which has been the model for many countries and international organisations), multiple impacts on small seas (the Mediterranean and Black Sea) etc. A summary of his career is at the site below. https://sites.google.com/view/john-caddy-fisheries-science/fisheries-science
Dr. Doubleday has had an extensive career in fisheries science and research, as well as on policy matters. He is author or co-author of over 58 scientific papers and editor or co-editor of three volumes. In addition, he has over 25 years of experience as an executive in the Federal Public Service, including managing DFO Science Sector and delivering science advice to six DFO Ministers. Within DFO, he has served as Director General of Fisheries and Oceans Science; Director General of Policy and Strategy, Science; Director of Policy and Program Coordination, Science; and Director of Resource Research Branch in Ottawa. Dr. Doubleday also served as Acting Assistant Deputy Minister, Science within DFO for two extended periods during the 1980’s and 1990’s. Dr. Doubleday led the transformation of DFO’s collaborative science arrangements with the fishing industry in response to Federal Court decisions of 2006 that forced DFO to discontinue allocating fish quotas to finance cooperation. This involved extensive consultation with the fishing industry across Canada and created a renewed strategic partnership with them. He also led the analysis, design and implementation of an ice compensation program for Atlantic fishermen in 2007. In DFO’s Policy Sector, he built a strong economic analysis group, introducing analysis of fishery management scenarios integrating scientific advice. He was responsible for introducing peer review for socio-economic analyses of listing proposals for species at risk. Dr. Doubleday has served as Senior Visiting Fellow, Science and Technology, Canadian Centre for Management Development. Dr. Doubleday was well known and respected internationally. He served as Chairman of the North Pacific Marine Science Organization (PICES) from 1996-98. He negotiated a scientific cooperation agreement creating a strategic partnership with the State Oceanic Agency of China, and was Canadian co-chair of the Canada-Japan joint committee on Science and Technology cooperation.
Recently retired, Pierre Dumont was a fisheries biologist, working in Quebec freshwater ecosystems since the beginning of the 1970s, when he got involved in the impact studies of the James Bay hydropower development. He worked for the Quebec government since 1978, first as a regional biologist in the Outaouais region, and then (since 1982), in the St. Lawrence River lowlands, in the most urbanized part of the province. He was involved in scientific studies on the status and the exploitation of lake sturgeon, yellow perch, and American eel, on the long-term monitoring of fish communities along the St. Lawrence River, on fish habitat improvement, and on the restoration of Copper Redhorse. He was also involved in the restoration of the European sturgeon for which he made a one-year stage in France in 1998-1999.
Dr. Moira M. Ferguson has devoted her productive and diverse career to advancing fisheries and aquatic sciences. She received her B.Sc. in 1979 and M.Sc., supervised by David Noakes, in 1981 from the University of Guelph, followed by her Ph.D. in 1986 from the University of Montana under the supervision of Fred Allendorf. She then returned to the University of Guelph as a faculty member in the Department of Zoology (later Department of Integrative Biology), becoming a full professor in 2000. Moira served as departmental chair from 2005-2015 and helped implement the transition from the Department of Zoology to the Department of Integrative Biology (merging faculty from the former departments of Zoology and Botany) and the new department’s move into the newly constructed Summerlee Science Complex in 2007.
Moira’s research contributions have substantially improved our understanding of fish biodiversity. Her research features major advances applying genetic concepts and tools to pressing questions in fisheries management and fish ecology and evolution, with a focus on species of management or conservation concern. This research has helped improve aquacultural stocks and practices by increasing our understanding of the genetic architecture of important traits, such as body size and age at maturation in Arctic charr, Atlantic salmon, and rainbow trout. Moira has also contributed to cutting edge studies of the genomics and evolution of within species diversity and speciation in salmonids, primarily Arctic charr. This research has improved our understanding of gene flow between populations and species and the evolutionary – developmental genetics of resource based phenotypic divergence. Moira’s impact is demonstrated by her record of over 180 scientific publications, over 9000 citations, plus numerous presentations at conferences, universities, and research institutions.
Moira’s leadership contributions to academic training and to the broader scientific community have been equally extensive and impactful. She has promoted fisheries and aquatic sciences in the university courses she has taught and the 90+ graduate students and postdoctoral researchers she has trained. Trainees from her lab have gone on to successful careers at universities, government institutions, and consulting firms in Canada and abroad, including Iceland, Japan, and multiple institutions in the United Kingdom. Moira’s influence on the field is further reflected in her service commitments off campus. She was as a member and chair of one the NSERC Discovery Grants evaluation committees. She has also made a lengthy contribution to science communication, which began in 1997 when she became an editor for Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, one of the top-rated fisheries journals in the world, and senior editor from 2002 – 2007, plus a member of the editorial board of the NRC Research Press Monograph Publishing Program from 2008 to 2010, and Deputy Editor-in-Chief of the NRC Research Press journals in 2012.
Moira is well known and respected by her peers and colleagues, both locally and globally. Her many accolades include the University President’s Distinguished Professor Award in 2003, the YMCA-YWCA Women of Distinction Award in 2006, and recognition in 2022 by research.com as one of the top scientists world-wide in biology and biochemistry.
Born in northern BC, Gordon received his BA, MA, and PhD degrees from the University of British Columbia. His dissertation work published in JFRBC in 1965 on behavior and ecology of juvenile coho salmon and steelhead continues to be a widely cited, foundational paper with respect to experimental evaluation of species interactions. Dr. Hartman’s varied career was widely influential. He was a research biologist with the BC Fish and Wildlife Branch where he conducted detailed studies of the spawning behavior of the unique Gerrard strain rainbow trout in Kootenay Lake. He taught fisheries biology at the University of Guelph 1968-1972 and was Wildlife Director for the Yukon. He also served overseas, working for the FAO in Malawi to help establish a fisheries program, teaching fisheries at Addis Ababa University in Ethiopia, and studying forest-harvest effects with the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries in New Zealand. In perhaps his most influential role, from 1980-1987, Dr. Hartman was director of the Carnation Creek Fish-Forestry Project, one of the longest running watershed studies in North America. Dr. Hartman revitalized the project, organizing key symposia, bringing in students and postdocs, and truly integrating physical and biological scientists. His work culminated in publishing a penultimate review of the project in 1990 (Fisheries and Oceans Bulletin 223) and co-authorship of the book “Fishes and Forestry-Worldwide Watershed Interactions and Management,” that uniquely brought together fish-forestry perspectives among scientists from the world over. These efforts have strongly influenced the science and management of fishes and forests throughout North America and the world. Dr. Hartman’s keen curiosity and powers of observation, his sense of humor and encouraging demeanor, and passion for natural-resource management, have contributed greatly to the science and management of fisheries and the professional development of fisheries scientists, throughout Canada for the past 50 years, and is truly a ‘legend’ to those fortunate to have worked with him.
Dr. Jeff Hutchings had a profound impact on fisheries science, life history theory, and the science-policy interface. His unexpected death in early 2022 rocked the global fisheries community and brought to the fore the immense scope of his contributions to fisheries science in Canada and worldwide.
After early exposure to fisheries during childhood visits to Newfoundland, Jeff obtained his undergraduate degree at the University of Toronto and returned to Newfoundland for his master’s and PhD on brook trout life histories at Memorial University. He eventually landed at the Department of Fisheries and Oceans in St. John’s. It was there that Jeff, together with Ransom Myers and others, played a pivotal role in bringing to light the dire status of Atlantic cod stocks, the role of overfishing, and the government’s inaction and cover-up of one of the greatest ecological and socio-economic disasters in Canadian history.
Jeff ultimately became the Killam Memorial Chair in Fish, Fisheries and Oceans as a Professor at Dalhousie University, where he spent the majority of his illustrious career. He also held influential positions in Norway and Finland, at the University of Agder’s Centre for Coastal Research, Norway’s Institute of Marine Research, the University of Oslo, and the University of Jyväskylä. His research blended ecology of salmonids and marine fishes with life history evolution and quantitative genetic approaches to understanding harvested species and species-at-risk. One major theme was the recovery of depleted marine fish populations, a body of work which elucidated the roles of allee effects and fisheries-induced evolution. He also made substantial contributions to our understanding of mating systems and reproduction, the evolutionary and adaptive significance of phenotypic plasticity, interactions between farmed and wild lineages, and management and conservation of marine biodiversity.
Jeff chaired the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada and was co-founder and president of the Canadian Society for Ecology and Evolution. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada and received the AG Huntsman Award for Excellence in the Marine Sciences. In acknowledgement of his transatlantic contributions, he was elected a member of the Norwegian Academy of Sciences and Letters. Most recently, he contributed to the development of the new Society of Canadian Aquatic Sciences.
Besides his research, Jeff is perhaps best known for his promotion and defence of evidence-based biodiversity policy, from his role in Newfoundland’s cod crisis to his outspoken denunciation of the denigration of science and the muzzling of federal scientists by the government in 2012. Jeff has inspired generations of scientists to step out of the labs and into the public arena.
Beyond his more than 250 publications in the primary literature and 3 books, including the recent A Primer of Life Histories: Ecology, Evolution, and Application, Jeff’s vast scientific legacy lives on in the 70 students and postdocs he formally mentored as well has his informal mentorship of countless students and colleagues. His authenticism, incredible capacity, generosity, and patience were as legendary as his scientific contributions to fisheries science, as detailed in his scientific obituary.
Retired from the OMNR, and recently retired Director of Conservation Ecology at Trout Unlimited Canada. He is a champion on the preservation of freshwater fishes, having served formerly as president of the Canadian Aquatic Resources Section (CARS) and Ontario Chapter of the American Fisheries Society. He has dedicated his life to this field from 1979-present. Jack has published countless articles on a variety of fisheries science topic and has nurtured dozens of students and colleagues over the years in this field. He has worked with colleagues at the national and international level.
Throughout his distinguished career, Dr. Michael Jones has championed the use of quantitative tools and stakeholder engagement to address complicated natural resource issues and meet management objectives in the face of uncertainty.
Dr. Jones grew up in Vancouver and obtained his B.Sc. (1977) and Ph.D (1986) in Zoology from the University of British Columbia. From 1980 to 1988, he worked as a systems ecologist with ESSA Technologies Ltd., participating in a variety of projects in resource management and environmental assessment, including fishery management, acid rain effects on fisheries, and aquatic effects of power plant operation. In 1988, he became a research scientist with the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, where he led the Great Lakes Salmonid Unit. In the eight years that he worked with the Salmonid Unit, he conducted research on various aspects of salmonine ecology in the Great Lakes including Atlantic salmon restoration in Lake Ontario, habitat-population interactions, stocking models, and the impacts of watershed land-use on the quality of riverine habitats.
In 1997, Dr. Jones joined the Department of Fisheries and Wildlife at Michigan State University (MSU). While at MSU, his research focused on Great Lakes fishery management, particularly sea lamprey control and applications of decision analysis to problems such as salmon stocking and percid harvest strategies. From 2008 to 2014, he served as Chairperson of the Department of Fisheries and Wildlife. From 2014 to 2019, he served as Assistant Director for MSU AgBioResearch. Dr. Jones retired in 2021 from his position as Peter A. Larkin Professor of Quantitative Fisheries and Co-Director of the Quantitative Fisheries Center at Michigan State University (MSU).
Dr. Jones has had a far-reaching influence on fisheries research and policy, integrating scientific knowledge, uncertainty, and stakeholder values. He has advanced understanding of adaptive management, structured decision-making, and management strategy evaluation as applied to sea lamprey control, salmonids in the Great Lakes and Pacific Northwest, Lake Erie percids, and more. His contributions and mentorship are a beacon for a sustainable future.
Professor Legendre began working at the Ministry of Hunting and Fishing in 1938, prior to completing his Master’s degree at the Université de Montréal and doctoral work at the University of Michigan. He served as Director of the Tadoussac (1943-47) and Laurentian (1943-1961) aquaculture facilities. He became Chief Biologist at the Office of Biology of the Department of Hunting and Fishing in 1952, and then served as Director of the Research Laboratory of the Québec Department of Tourism, Hunting and Fishing from 1962 until his retirement in 1980. In addition to his various positions with the Government of Québec, he taught at the Université de Montréal from 1939 to 1959, teaching courses including in ichthyology, physiology, and pharmacodynamics, among other subjects. He was actively involved in reviewing and recommending masters and doctoral theses in hydrology and ichthyology at Laval, McGill, Montréal, and Québec universities.
His research compassed work on salmonids, including Atlantic Salmon and Brook Trout, and esocids, and studies on fish migration and pioneering the scientific sampling of regions such as Ungava and the Saguenay River. He described the Copper Redhorse (Moxostoma hubbsi), the only fish species endemic to Québec. He played a significant role in the restoration of the Jacques Cartier River. He published 232 articles, conference texts, and books on ichthyology, including the Key for the Identification of Salmonids of the Province of Quebec, the List of Freshwater Fishes of Quebec and the Salmonids of the Waters of the Montreal Plain.
As a recognition of his numerous contributions, the fishway facility on the Richelieu River was named of the Vianney-Legendre Fishway, and it that plays a critical role in protecting fish biodiversity and species at risk. Given the importance and extent of Professor Vianney Legendre’s contribution to our knowledge of fish and fisheries within Canada, we believe he represents an excellent candidate for consideration to be included within the Legends of Canadian Fisheries Science and Management.
Colin is an internationally recognized estuarine and fisheries research scientist ( http://colinlevings.ca/). Currently affiliated with Fisheries and Oceans Canada and an Adjunct Faculty, University of British Columbia, Institute for Resources, Environment and Sustainability, he has made a substantial contribution to our understanding of salmon utilization of estuarine habitats, culminating in his internationally acclaimed book entitled “Ecology of Salmonids in Estuaries around the World”. During his 58 year career, Colin has conducted scientific research on Pacific cod ecology, marine protected areas, effects of fishing gear on benthos, estuarine amphipod ecology, pollution studies (acid mine drainage, pulp mills/dioxin, ocean dumping, sewage), estuarine marsh restoration, eelgrass mapping and remote sensing, invasive species including ballast water studies, environmental effects of aquaculture, winter ecology of salmonids in the Fraser River system, use of stable isotopes to identify nearshore food webs, Pacific lamprey ecology, effects of turbidity on salmonid feeding, and effects of low dissolved oxygen on fjord oceanography. He has published over 200 scientific papers and reports, and his work is cited around the world (2019, 24 countries) by many authors in an impressive array of journals and books. Colin has worked extensively with scientists in Norway, Korea, Japan and researched in these countries as well as hosting overseas scientists in his laboratory. He has served as a co-supervisor for over 20 graduate students and post doctoral fellows at UBC, Simon Fraser University, and University of Victoria and continues to write, review, advise and mentor students and colleagues.
Ken H. Loftus
Ken Loftus was Director, Sport Fisheries Branch from 1972-1976 and then Director, Fisheries Research Branch from 1976-1980 and at the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources from 1976-1980. Ken was a prominent figure in fish management in Ontario, emphasized science-based management, and promoted an ecosystem approach to Great Lakes management. Ken was one of the main developers of the Strategic Plan for Ontario Fisheries (Loftus et al. 1978). This federal-provincial exercise resulted in the production of four background reports and nine working group reports. Working group reports included designation of fisheries assessment units, rationalizing the commercial fishery, involving the public in fisheries management, introducing a resident sport fishing licence, and developing defensible fish yield estimates. SPOF established the principles of managing provincial fisheries for the benefits of all society not just those of competing interests (Christie et al. 1999). SPOF was approved by the Ontario cabinet in 1978 (https://www.ontario.ca/page/fish-management-history). Ken authored dozens of technical and peer-reviewed reports. His scientific and fisheries management legacy is immortalized by The Jack Christie/Ken H. Loftus Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions toward Understanding Healthy Great Lakes Ecosystems granted to a person or group who has made significant scientific contributions to the health of the Great Lakes, presented by The Great Lakes Fishery Commission.
Walter T. Momot
Prof. Momot’s work has been great for researchers working in Europe, and especially his approach as seeing aquatic ecosystems as highly dynamic, which makes a good basis for the harvesting policies as well. Understanding the dynamism involves looking at it at several trophic levels, while a common practice has often been a study of individual species which are thus given fixed role in the system. This is a very static kind of approach that neglects the dynamic nature of the entire system and the consequences of the perturbations it is undergoing. Another specific inspiration has been his studies on crayfish exploitation, whereby he found out that setting size limits to crayfish catching is actually diminishing the crop! Finish researchers campaigned, starting in the 1980s, against any size limits to crayfish (Astacus astacus) catching which was 9 cm. Then the Finish ministry dropped this size limit, though it remains as a commercial limit. Now we can catch crayfishes of all sizes, we are allowed to catch crayfish for research purposes without any separate permit. (This happened in the 1990’s.) Catching crayfish of all sizes also eliminates possible adverse effects on the population’s genetic structure, as before it when only the large and fastest growing individuals we removed, thus leaving the population in a stunted state.
He was a pioneer in zooplankton research, working in the Experimental Lakes Area (ELA) and eutrophication. Before immigrating to Canada in 1967, he was Professor of Hydrobiology at the Freshwater Institute in Olsztyn, Poland. He continued his research at the Freshwater Institute in Winnipeg, where he worked as a research scientist for 25 years. He was awarded the Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee Medal.
Randall M. Peterman held a Canada Research Chair in “Fisheries Risk Assessment and Management” at Simon Fraser University from 2001 through 2012 and specialized in quantitative methods to improve fisheries management. His research focused on: (1) fish population dynamics, (2) uncertainties affecting conservation risks and management decisions, and (3) reducing uncertainties. He used large data sets, simulations models, Bayesian statistics, and formal decision analysis. Peer recognition for his research includes the 1990 J.C. Stevenson Award for “…creative research on the cutting edge of an aquatic discipline.” Awards include the 2012 award for the “Second-best paper” in Computer Graphics Forum (Proceedings of the 2012 Eurographics Conference on Visualization, Vienna, Austria), 2006 Robert L. Kendall “Best Paper Award” for the Transactions of the American Fisheries Society (134:86), “The Most Significant Paper in the North American J. of Fisheries Management” (1992, 12:1), and the 1994 W.F. Thompson Award (American Institute of Fisheries Research Biologists) for “The Best Student Paper” (Canadian J. of Fish. & Aquatic Sci. 49:1294). In 1990, Randall won Simon Fraser University’s Excellence in Teaching Award. He has co-chaired a panel for the Canadian Global Change Program of the Royal Society of Canada. https://www.sfu.ca/rem/people/profiles/peterman.html
Dr. Edward E. Prince (1859-1937) was, for all intents and purposes, the Canadian Government’s first professionally trained fisheries biologist. Recruited from the Royal College of Medicine (Glasgow) in 1892, he was appointed the Canadian Commissioner of Fisheries. Under his tenure, Canada’s fisheries laws were made more effective through the application of scientific information. He was probably the most prolific fisheries author of his day, writing on a variety of topics ranging from the effectiveness of fishways to management of sturgeon. Among his most noteworthy achievements was being named the Canadian representative to the Joint Commission Relative to the Preservation of the Fisheries in Waters Contiguous to Canada and the United States, the first example of binational cooperation for management of shared fisheries, under whose leadership a comprehensive investigation of the status of shared coastal and inland fisheries was completed over a four year period. Probably his most lasting contribution to fisheries science was the establishment of Canada’s first marine (Bay of Fundy) and inland (Georgian Bay) fisheries research stations including what would eventually become the Fisheries Research Board of Canada and the Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science.
Donald Rawson had a short but impactful career in Fisheries Science. Born in Uxbridge Ontario in 1905, he completed his PhD at the University of Toronto studying the invertebrate and fish communities of Lake Simcoe. His thesis work is to this day still cited and provides some of the first data on water quality and biota on the lake on record. His field notes indicate that the benthic samples from Kempenfelt Bay were dominated by hairs from the tanneries that poured into the lake. He then joined the Biology department at the University of Saskatchewan where he was department chair of Biology from 1946-1961. He was a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada and a member of the Fisheries Research Board. His work on the northern Great Lakes of Canada was foundational, and his integrative research on drivers of fish production was critical in the development of the Morphoedaphic Index and in driving contemporary ideas around the importance of lake size and water quality as it relates to fish production and yield. The Rawson Academy of Aquatic Sciences was founded in 1979 in his name recognizing him as “one of Canada’s earliest and foremost limnologists, whose integrative concepts were far in advance of his time”, and operated until 1994. Rawson lake at the Experimental Lakes Area bears his name, and he is in the Saskatchewan Sports Hall of Fame for wrestling. He died young in 1961. More about Dr. Rawson;s contributions can be found in this article: https://www.erudit.org/fr/revues/scientia/1990-v14-n1-2-scientia3118/800300ar/
Scientist Emeritus, Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, and former President, International Council for the Exploration of the Sea. Mike’s early research was on primary production in estuaries. This was followed by a focus on population ecology of exploited marine fish species. More recent research has been on the practical implementation of the “ecosystem approach” to fisheries management, as well as the role of grey seals on the lack of recovery of cod on the Eastern Scotian Shelf.
Richard Albert Vollenweider
Richard Vollenweider worked with the OECD in Switzerland to capture quantitative relationships between land use, water renewal rates, nutrient supply rates, lake trophic status, chlorophyll, and biotic conditions. He was head-hunted by Wally Johnson and Jack Vallentyne for the Fisheries Research Board team in 1968, and his OECD model became the fundamental framework for Canadian ELA research, Great Lakes research, and even some river/estuary oceanographic studies in Florida and Mediterranean coastal seas. For most of us, his eutrophication model was the first quantitative, testable, practical, and useful tool in both the science and management of freshwater resources that were in trouble from oversupply of nutrients (mainly phosphorus). He was also a very good cook, a wine expert, and raconteur of many strange jokes.
Samuel Wilmot (1822-1899) was established Canada’s first fish culture station on his property at Newcastle, Ontario, in 1866, with the intention of curbing the decline in Atlantic salmon in Lake Ontario; in 1868 the federal government appointed him a fisheries overseer with special duties for operating the hatchery. Later being named the Superintendent of Fish Culture, he established a system of 15 hatcheries across the country, including the development of numerous innovations in fish culture techniques. Biography found here: